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Suicide Prevention Training

Indigenous communities and the mainstream workforce need to understand how to respond to people experiencing trauma, loss and grief. This involves skills such as conflict mediation, mental health first aid and lateral violence prevention.

Effective, culturally responsive training is essential to build a trauma-informed workforce that can provide compassionate, culturally-informed care and support to Aboriginal and Torres Islander people experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Indigenous-specific suicide prevention training is relevant for organisations, workforces and individuals who:

  • provide social and emotional wellbeing support
  • interact with people experiencing a suicidal crisis
  • interact with people at risk of suicide or who need ongoing care
  • interact with people impacted by suicide

This may include health and non-health organisations, and community gatekeepers such as teachers or sports coaches, who are trained to identify people at risk of suicide, conducting brief interventions and referring them to support services.

Browse Programs & Services

Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA-National)

Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) is a national program designed to train participants to assist Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adults with mental health issues or crises until professional help is available or until the crisis is resolved. The course is offered routinely across Australia.


General Enquiries: 03 9079 0208/ Email: mhfa@mhfa.com.au

Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid was informed by strategic guidance from a similar Canadian program, First Nations Mental Health First Aid (CMHFA). Evaluations of CMHFA reported that participants experienced gains in knowledge, self-efficacy, skills and decreased self-stigma. To make the program appropriate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter just Aboriginal) communities in Australia, after consultation with expert reference groups, stakeholders and local community members, the CMHFA was adjusted for cultural factors, to produce the AMHFA.

From 2007-2008, 199 Aboriginal Instructors were trained through one of the 17 five-day Instructor Training Courses held around Australia. Since then, over 600 Aboriginal people have become AMHFA Instructors, with 200 Aboriginal people currently active as accredited AMHFA Instructors. Since the launch in 2007, a revised 14-hour AMHFA course has been run approximately 2,700 times across all states and territories to over 50,000 members of the community.

Courses have been informed by a range of Delphi consensus studies drawing on the expertise of Aboriginal people with lived or professional experiences across Australia. Through these consultations, the 14-hour AMHFA Course is now in its third edition. Additional programs have also been developed to supplement the 14-hour course. These are:

  • A four-hour course for accredited AMHFA Instructors who have completed the 14-hour AMHFA Course to refresh their knowledge and skills three years after completing their training
  • A five-hour ‘Talking About Suicide’ course which focuses on teaching skills on how to provide mental health first aid to an Aboriginal person experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviours
  • A five-hour ‘Talking About Gambling’ course which focuses on teaching skills on how to provide mental health first aid to an Aboriginal person experiencing gambling problems
  • A five-hour ‘Talking About Non-suicidal Self-injury’ course which focuses on teaching the skills of providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal person engaging in non-suicidal self-injury
  • A Youth AMHFA course which focuses on teaching adults how to provide mental health first aid to an Aboriginal adolescent

The overall vision of those who have developed and implemented the AMHFA is of a community where many people have the skills to support those with mental health problems. To achieve this vision, the objectives are to:

  • Provide high quality, evidence-based mental health first aid courses to train community members to become accredited AMFA instructors
  • Provide refresher courses to accredited AMHFA Instructors
  • Consult regularly with Aboriginal communities regarding course updates
  • Update the courses according to these consultations

Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid focuses on developing knowledge about symptoms and behaviours linked with help-seeking by Aboriginal people experiencing mental illness, as well as increasing individual and community understanding of suicide prevention. Accredited AMHFA Instructors were more likely to run AMHFA courses if they had previous teaching experience and were provided with follow-up support from one of the program trainers. Overall, AMHFA has been shown to be effective in improving trainees’ knowledge of mental illnesses, their treatments and appropriate first aid strategies and increasing their confidence in providing first aid to a person experiencing a mental health problem. Other participant outcomes are decreases in stigmatising attitudes and increases in the amount and type of support which they are able to provide to others1.

An evaluation framework to inform and guide the implementation of the program was established at the commencement of AMHFA in 2007. The evaluation report by Kanowski et al. (2009)1 presented information on its uptake and acceptability for Aboriginal people based on quantitative and qualitative data. Analysis showed that both the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course were culturally appropriate, empowering and provided relevant and important information for training to assist Aboriginal people with a mental illness2.

A later evaluation3 confirmed that program attendance led to an improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, confidence in the value of treatment, decreased social distance from people with mental disorders, increased confidence in providing help and an increase in the amount of help provided to others, which was shown to be sustained for up to six months after program completion.

Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid was rated as strong evidence of effectiveness and best practice. It is evident from survey feedback and literature pertaining to AMHFA that the program is a valuable initiative to build community capacity. The program aligns with community consultations and enables people to talk, share with and build social connectedness. Concurrent action to address stigma by creating safe community environments was consistently identified.

A review of psycho-social programs3 to improve social and emotional well-being in Aboriginal people scored 16 interventions for strength of evidence. Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid was ranked first as having the strongest evidence with a 100% score. There was strong support from the Aboriginal respondents with 64% of the respondents finding the program increased knowledge and skills3.

The program is constantly evaluated and improved using the Delphi consensus method with 28 Aboriginal health experts participating across two independent Delphi studies.

This method was identified as a useful consultation tool for Aboriginal people gauging culturally appropriate best practice in mental health services. The AMHFA guidelines and culturally appropriate guidelines for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal person who is experiencing problems with alcohol or drug misuse have been updated. Furthermore, a trial of the latest edition of the 14-hour AMHFA Course and the ‘Talking About Suicide’ course is being planned to evaluate its efficacy.

More recently, the University of Melbourne conducted an evaluation in 2023 on the AMHFA, assessing its impact on an individual’s non-suicidal self-injury on stigmatising attitudes, confidence in ability to assist, and intended and actual assisting actions: pre-course, post-course measurement and 6-month follow-up. See here for the full report. 


A review of the program evaluations confirm that the AMHFA program is well-organised, comprehensive and provides a sound cultural adaptation of a more general program to assist Aboriginal people experiencing psychological distress. Importantly, this program is in accord with best practice guidelines and has been developed and managed by Aboriginal people.

Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid builds strengths and capacity in Aboriginal communities, especially by providing materials and resources that are appropriate for the needs of Aboriginal people in diverse community settings. It also offers access to community-based programs to improve suicide awareness among “gatekeepers” and “natural helpers” in communities affected by self-harm and suicide through contextualised delivery of programs to people in the community. It also builds strength and resilience in individuals and families through culturally appropriate, life-promoting, resilience-building and sustainable strategies that are tailored specifically for Aboriginal people. The program focuses on developing knowledge about symptoms and behaviours linked with help-seeking by Aboriginal people experiencing mental illness, as well as increasing individual and community understanding of suicide prevention. Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid was rated very highly as strong evidence of effectiveness and best practice.

It is evident from the feedback from the informational survey and the literature that the AMHFA training program is a particularly valuable type of initiative to build community capacity. The program aligns with community consultations regarding the need to enable people to talk and share with one another and build social connectedness.

  1. Mental Health First Aid Australia. Why Mental Health First Aid? 2018 [Available from: https://mhfa.com.au/why-mhfa.
  2. Kanowski LG, Jorm AF, Hart LM. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation. International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2009;3(1):10.
  3. Day A, Francisco A. Social and emotional wellbeing in Indigenous Australians: identifying promising interventions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2013;37(4)

Back On Track Pathways to Success Program (Saltbush Social Enterprises, NT)*

Saltbush Social Enterprises (Saltbush) responds to identified critical service gaps by offering practical, innovative solutions to; physical, emotional and social wellbeing needs; personal growth and stability; and the education, employment, training and business development aspirations of Aboriginal people throughout the Northern Territory. The belief that a person with a job is a person with a future guides the organisations mission to build capacity and capability to self-determine by improving opportunities for education, trianing and employment.
Saltbush operates out of Darwin, Elliott, Alice Springs and Tennant Creek and initiatives are tailored towards Indigenous and Torres Strait Islander youth.


Phone: 08 7915 7001
Email: info@saltbushnt.org.au
Saltbush Social Enterprises (Saltbush) responds to identified critical service gaps by offering practical, innovative solutions to; physical, emotional and social wellbeing needs; personal growth and stability; and the education, employment, training and business development aspirations of Aboriginal people throughout the Northern Territory. The belief that a person with a job is a person with a future guides the organisations mission to build capacity and capability to self-determine by improving opportunities for education, trianing and employment.
Other programs and services that Satlbush supports is the Youth Supported Bail Accommodaiton Service, Pathways to Success Program, Future Stars Aspirational Program, Saltbush Wellbeing Program, Employment Services and School Nutrition Program.
Saltbush operates out of Darwin, Elliott, Alice Springs and Tennant Creek.
The Pathways to Success program is a part of the NT Government’s 2019 Back on Track Initiative. This program is tailored for 8-17 year olds and emphasises on building family capacity and responsibility, re-engaging youth with mainstream education and providing alternative diversion pathways for youth involved in anti-social and criminal behaviour.
The main objective of the Back on Track Pathways to Success Program is to get young people to take responsibility for their actions through an understanding of the consequences of their offending behaviour, whilst equipping them with the skills to move forward and lead productive lives.
They aim to achieve this by:
– empowering young participants to make positive life choices including a sense of self, connection to culture and cultural identity.
– working with and encouraging participants to give back to the community through volunterring.
– enhancing the young person’s self-confidence and self-worth through community involvement.
– delivering a holistic service personalised to the young person’s individual needs.
According to the Saltbush 2022 Annual Report:
– 194 Aboroginal Jobseekers commenced employment
– 208 Group Wellbeing sessions
– 596 Individual Wellbeing sessions
– Up to 70 kids fed daily
And through the Pathways to Success Program:
– 5 youth achieved their learner’s permit
– 3 youth attained AFL umpiring certificates
– 3 youth gained their White Card
– Participants continued with activities that ‘give back to the community’ with the support from the Saltbush team, such as painting over graffiti in club rooms and supporting community events.

To be updated. 

The Saltbush programs are assessed to having:
– Community Leadership: 53 Indigenous team members over the 2021-2022 period, making up 71% of the Saltbush team.
– Evaluation: Through monthly newsletters and annual reports, reviews are provided to outline feedback, outcomes and findings.
– Capacity Building: Individuals going through Saltbush receive education and training to become quaified and registered in a variety of programs that are suitable towards their interest, to equip them to be able to acquire a stable and enjoyable job.

Billabongs of Knowledge Training, The Seedling Group

Billabongs of Knowledge Training is about culturally safe and trauma-informed practice. The training contains a series of eight modules each around one hour in duration.
The training was developed specifically for First Nations’ Peoples, those who work with or provide service for the community, and anyone who wants to understand trauma from an Indigenous perspective. The training resources are fun, interactive, and knowledge-filled and has wide and general application.


For specialised training: nicole@theseedlinggroup.org
12 Hawthorne Avenue
The Billabongs of Knowledge Training is provided by the Seedling Group who commits to working with Indigenous communities on projects to build capacity and hope.
The training contains eight modules, and each has different focus:
  1. Module 1 is on the lay of the land. It introduces the yarning method, which is used throughout the course. It is the grounding point for the information covered through the rest of the program.
  2. Module 2 is about preparing for the journey. This module looks at the term cultural safety, and how it builds into this program and culturally safe trauma-informed practice.
  3. Module 3 is called yarning at the campsite. This module unpacks trauma, which can be quite complicated and is a heavy subject to work through. In this module, participants learn to ground themselves and are given tools they can use.
  4. Module 4 is “passing down the knowledge”. This module allows further learning about trauma, and passing down knowledge about the types of trauma, with a focus on adverse childhood experiences and attachment theory.
  5. Module 5 focuses on yarning about racial trauma. This module challenges worldviews, and create a reaction.
  6. Module 6 is “Sharing Knowledge”. Psychological trauma is very prevalent in society; working in a culturally safe, trauma-informed way, is a safe way to work with everyone.
  7. Module 7 is “Yarning about culture and healing”. This module dives deeper into understanding culture and how it can protect and support participants.
  8. Module 8 is “Self-care”. This module looks at practicing self-care as the everyday actions taken to refill the cup with joy, and to keep people safe and healthy.
The Seedling Group believes that understanding trauma allows people to make strong informed decisions about their lives. The services are based on trauma-informed, evidence-based, and culturally sound practices. The Seedling Group combines the generations of healing knowledge with Western psychological and neurological sciences to benefit the clients.
The Billabongs of Knowledge Training is for organisations and/or individuals working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples or other First Nations Peoples. The training aims to help individuals understand and protect themselves against vicarious trauma and develop practice within a culturally safe trauma-informed framework offering the principles of safety. The training also helps participants understand how trauma is different for First Nations Peoples and recognise response when working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients.

To be updated.

The Billabongs of Knowledge Training is currently being evaluated.

As an organisation providing professional supervision, trauma-informed cultural awareness training, and psychology services, the Seedling Group has consultants who are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander professionals.
The Seedling Group is partnered with other organisations such as the Australian Psychological Society, Healing Foundation, the Aboriginal Housing Office of the NSW Government, and the School of Psychology of the University of Queensland.
The Billabongs of Knowledge Training aims to provide training targeting cultural responsiveness and safety components for non-Indigenous staff in different organisations.

Gamarada Suicide Prevention, Therapy and Training Programs (NSW)

These programs are offered through Gamarada Universal Indigenous Resources Pty Ltd, an Aboriginal owned, not-for-profit organisation which is uniquely placed in the market and deeply embedded into the community of Redfern in inner Sydney. The programs are designed for both Aboriginal (hand non-Aboriginal people and people recently released from prison. The program is governed by a board of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal members1. Similarly, the workshops are led by both Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal people.



Contact details:

Dr Ken Zulumovski, CEO

Email: ken@guir.com.au

Phone: +61 433 346 645

In 2007, Ken, an Aboriginal Kabi Kabi man, led the establishment of Gamarada Indigenous Healing and Life Training Pty Ltd (Gamarada) that responds to the therapeutic and educational needs for culturally safe community healing, life skills and cultural leadership programs targeting family violence, addiction, suicide prevention and access to Justice. Gamarada Programs are based in inner Sydney at Redfern and incorporate traditional Aboriginal healing alongside Western and Eastern methods. Funding is provided by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sponsors2.

A diverse range of programs are provided, including two-day healing and ten-week healing programs; and a Healing and Cultural Leadership Program2. Some programs are structured whilst others are not. Programs use life skills and practical techniques. An example of a practical technique taught is Dadirri3 or Deep Still Listening.  The program is generally delivered in yarning groups of 15 to 25 participants sitting in a circle.  This enables some groups to be run by the participants themselves under the direction of Gamarada leaders. The program requires a full commitment by participants to work from strengths not weaknesses and to be patient to develop a bond of trust and inspiring interactions to generate positive feelings to move forward. Older participants share time with younger males, to enable them to observe and model positive men’s behaviours.

  1. To assist Aboriginal people (participants) and families through the direct relief of sickness, poverty, suffering, distress and helplessness
  2. To increase social inclusion, family cohesion and economic engagement of participants by bringing the community together and directly addressing barriers that exist between the program participants and the rest of the community
  3. To undertake steps to further these objectives

Progress towards Objective 1 is achieved by front-line program delivery using Gamarada coaching techniques. To hasten the achievement of Objective 2,  participants are encouraged to access Healing Hubs at locations within the community. Here kinships and professional networks are utilized for robust community engagement under culturally safe and trauma informed frameworks and protocols. For example, Healing and Life training initiatives are weekly gatherings where participants and other members of the community can access therapeutic change and cultural renewal. Service providers are regularly invited. Gamarada leaders move towards achieving Objective 3 through systemic advocacy such as conference presentations, public awareness campaigns, community forums, the promotion of community cohesion, kinship and strong cultural leadership. These are all in-line with Aboriginal led mental health and SEWB initiatives as well as the Gayaa Dhuwi (Proud Spirit) Declaration4.

Outcomes of the Gamarada Healing Program include providing participants with opportunities for:

  • Learning and healing
  • Achievement
  • Increasing self-esteem and confidence
  • Young males to observe positive men’s behaviours
  • Exploring Aboriginal culture1

Participants commented positively on the techniques learnt through their participation in Gamarada programs. For example, regular practice of Dadirri was mentioned as a positive skill that was useful for self-reflection and keeping positive. One commented that learning these techniques helped him to reflect on his mistakes and to stay positive during the oncoming week. Participants described the program as honest and open and as helping them to share by way of the safety provided by the non-judgemental approach of leaders. Through the program, participants described how their self-control and ability to make positive choices had promoted their personal development1.

Increases in self-esteem and confidence of participants in the Gamarada Men’s Group have been independently identified5. For example, the author was impressed with these qualities in the men who participated in the Gamarada Men’s Group in 2013. Gamarada’s role in this respect was evidenced by the testimonies of the men. Likewise, participants of this program identified the importance of making time to share positive men’s behaviours with younger males5.

 A Program Quality Assessment was carried out during the second half of 20151 using the Critical Success Factor Framework. The project involved the assessment of five consecutive sessions of the Gamarada Healing Program on Monday evenings. Feedback from participants was generated by the assessors with the showing of a short PowerPoint presentation to a focus group which explained the purpose of a particular activity. Attendance levels have been an important strength for Gamarada  since its inception1. During 2014, Gamarada’s Monday evening sessions provided an average of more than ten participants a session. The evaluation1 also reported that participants had adopted a total commitment to working from strengths and what  can be  developed,  rather than what’s  wrong.

Gamarada was recognised by the NSW Department of the Premier and Cabinet with an Excellence Award for Building Leadership in Indigenous Communities in 2010. In 2019, Ken was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Sydney in recognition of his many achievements, particularly those with Gamarada. The work of Gamarada is cited in over 100 publications and interviews including: The Elders Report into the Prevention of Youth Suicide, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner’s Social Justice Report and the NSW Mental Health Commission’s Living Well Report. Clients and collaborators include the NSW Ministry of Health, Central Eastern and Western Sydney Primary Health Networks, Sydney Local Health District, the University of NSW, Sydney’s University of Technology, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Health Service Mackay, QLD.

Gamarada has transformed healing practices for Indigenous people and pioneered ground-breaking principles which are examples of best practice. Ken and his team are committed to systemic advocacy through holding regular community forums and national and international conference presentations across the Health and Justice spectrum.

  1. Haswell M. Program Quality Assessment of the Gamarada Community Healing Program 2015 [Available from: https://www.slideshare.net/KenZulumovski/gamarada-program-quality-assessment2.
  2. McKendrick J, Brooks R, Hudson J, et al. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander healing programs: a literature review. Canberra: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Healing Foundation 2014. https://scholar.google.com.au/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Aboriginal+and+Torres+Strait+Islander+Healing+Programs&btnG=#d=gs_cit&u=%2Fscholar%3Fq%3Dinfo%3AHZMHL1CxYNkJ%3Ascholar.google.com%2F%26output%3Dcite%26scirp%3D0%26hl%3Den.
  3. Education C. Yarra healing: towards reconciliation with Indigenous Australian 2019 [Available from: http://www.yarrahealing.catholic.edu.au/celebrations/index.cfm?loadref=58 accessed 2019 June 21.
  4. Dudgeon P, Calma T, Brideson T, et al. The Gayaa Dhuwi (proud Spirit) declaration–a call to action for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander leadership in the Australian mental health system. Advances in Mental Health 2016; 14(2). https://www.ntmhc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Gayaa-Dhuwi-Proud-Spirit-Declaration.pdf.
  5. McDonald J, Haswell M. Indigenous men’s groups and social and emotional well-being: an indigenous doctor’s perspective. Australasian Psychiatry 2013; 21(5). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1039856213498430?journalCode=apya.

Guidelines for Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid Training

Mental Health First Aid Australia (part of Mental Health First Aid international) is an evidence-based and award-winning program that seeks to equip individuals with the skills to approach individuals who are undergoing emotional distress. These evidence-based guidelines have been adapted to teach the Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal community how to approach an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing emotional distress through trainings such as the Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid Training.

Address: Level 6, 369 Royal Parade, Parkville VIC 3052

Email: mhfa@mhfa.com.au

Phone: +61 3 9079 0200

These guidelines describe how members of the public should provide first aid to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples who may be developing a mental illness or experiencing a mental health crisis.

These guidelines are designed to accompany the series Guidelines for Providing Mental Health First Aid to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The role of the first aider is to assist the person until appropriate professional help is received or the crisis resolves.

Since its development, the Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid Training is currently being administered in all Australian states, with a range of delivery options (e.g., online, in-person, blended) to accommodate various contexts. The program has been delivered to almost 200 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and there are currently about 15 registered Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander training facilitators across Australia who are able to provide this training.

The Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid Training has been well-reviewed in peer-reviewed literature. Participants and/or trainees of the training reported feeling more confident in their ability to approach a person who was experiencing emotional distress. Participants also mentioned that having facilitators who had lived experience, as being particularly helpful to the training. In particular, the training has been suggested to improve mental health literacy in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

The Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid is assessed as having community consultation and co-design as it was created through consultations with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and clinicians across Australia. Through these consultations, the current Mental Health First Aid Manual was adapted to be culturally appropriate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid training practises ‘cultural safety’ whereby it understands the diversity of cultures and emphasizes that these guidelines are made specific for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia.
It is also focused on capacity building of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal peoples by teaching skills on how to approach Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples who may be experiencing emotional distress. In addition, it offers opportunities for Aboriginal trainees to become facilitators of the Aboriginal Mental Health First Aid training.
Day, A., Casey, S., Baird, M., Geia, L., & Wanganeen, R. (2021). Evaluation of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid Program. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 45(1), 46–52.
Kanowski, L. G., Jorm, A. F., & Hart, L. M. (2009). A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: Description and initial evaluation. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 3(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-3-10

Gunawirra - Clinic on Country (NSW)

Gunawirra works closely with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families and children to provide a range of clinical services such as psychotherapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy in Sydney. They also provide training to better equip preschool teachers to address the emotional, health, and cultural needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

Address: 19a Quirk Street (Cnr Quirk & Gordon St) Rozelle, NSW2039
Phone: (02) 9810 2312
Email: Contact them here
Gunawirra is a community-led organisation that works closely with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, families, children and communities to reach their full potential. The focus is operating programs that build capacity and confidence towards healing, resilience and self-reliance. These programs are initiated and informed by the community that they serve.
The Young Aboriginal Mother’s Group based in Gunawirra House, Rozelle NSW is an early intervention service for women with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. The weekly program provides activities based on the mothers’ requests, interests and needs including individual therapy, social work support with access to health, housing, employment, education and financial services, art therapy, alternative therapies, practical support with grocery supplies, cultural facilities to promote health and wellbeing as well as a business program designed to (re)connect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers to traditional cultural practices. In 2019, Gunawirra also developed a program, ‘Clinic on Country’ to provide regular multi-disciplinary services (e.g., speech therapy, occupational therapy, art therapy and social work) to rural NSW schools where Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and families are unable to access these professional services.
The Five Big Ideas Program for preschools provide training to teachers of various preschools across remote and regional areas of NSW on topics such as basic hygiene, nutrition, behavioural problems, and identity.
Gunawirra also provides professional development for preschool educators working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and families. These sessions focus on understanding trauma, its impact on children and teachers who care for them, the importance of culture in healing and the need for self-care for professionals. They also provide support services for teachers such as art psychotherapy.

Gunawirra seeks to build capacity and confidence towards healing, resilience and self-reliance by working closely with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families and children.

According to the 2021 Annual Report, Gunawirra has made waves through their programs 1:
– completed 1723 service delivery hours with 255 people under the Young Aboriginal Mothers Groups Program
– completed 1431 service delivery hours with 1255 people under the 5 Big Ideas program
– provided 162 hours of teacher training and cultural learning

Gunawirra also launched a collection of cultural videos aimed at reaching Aboriginal families during the pandemic, sharing knowledge with preschool children, and enlightening the wider community on topics including Dreamtime stories, Aboriginal tools, and native plants. These videos had over 4000 views and 5 star ratings by all attendees, with people tuning in from all over Australasia, and won the Best Technology Achievement by an Indigenous Australian in the Australian Not-for-Profit Technology Awards. There are have plans to continue releasing more cultural webinars covering topics such as kinship and identity, and traditional native food uses.

Western Sydney University conducted an evaluation on the Young Aboriginal Mother’s Group in 2015 by personally attending the group sessions and interviewing the mothers taking part in the group 2. Overall, attending the group had benefits that could be grouped into 2 main themes: (1) Purpose of the group: Supporting and facilitating Aboriginal motherhood and (2) the Workings of the group. For more information on the evaluation, click here.

Under the theme of Purpose of the group: Supporting and facilitating Aboriginal motherhood, the evaluation found that the group met its purpose of supporting and facilitating motherhood. Staff attributed this to Gunawirra “creating the conditions to encourage the emotional engagement of the mothers with their children beyond meeting practical care needs”. The presence of the staff was also paramount in “encouraging the mothers’ interest and curiousity in their children” as they helped “giving (give) meaning to the children’s behaviour”.

The group also served as a source of peer support and countered the social isolation that the mothers experienced. The mothers who attended the group spoke of the “support they gained from the other mothers as normalising and empowering them in their experiences of motherhood.”. Understanding that others are going through similar issues helped to remove the “stigma that they (the mothers) felt as young Aboriginal mothers.”.

The group also served as a “space to share their knowledge and experiences of motherhood” around “practical care tasks as well as accounts of how to relate to children”, and gave the mothers “an opportunity to have a break and some time out for themselves during their week.”. Finally, the group served as a mechanism for cultural transmission where mothers “became more confident and proud of their identities as Aboriginal women over time” as they engaged in “Aboriginal painting within the group, an outing to see rock paintings, weaving…”.

Under the theme of the Workings of the group, staff reported that they were able to form “trusting relationships for developing a safe space for the women to share ‘deeper’ emotional experiences.”. The trusting relationship formed between staff and mother provided some “emotional support to create the conditions to strengthen attachment between mothers and children and facilitate emotional capacity.”. Staff were able to form these trusting relationships by simply “holding space” or “validating the mothers’ emotional experiences, as well as their positive mothering practices.”.

Therefore, the evaluation found that “the mothers’ group serve function in terms of support, facilitating mother-child relationships and the development of the women’s construction of motherhood and themselves as mothers.”.

The Five Big Ideas program was also evaluated by Western Sydney University in 2016 by administering surveys and conducting interviews with the pre-school teachers and directors’ perspectives of the Five Big Ideas program 4.

Overall, the feedback on the Five Big Ideas program was found to be largely positive. The pre-school teachers noted changes in the children after going through content such as ‘personal hygiene’, ‘nutrition’, and ‘self-help skills’. In terms of personal hygiene, staff noted there was increased motivation to brush teeth and an increased desire to complete these tasks by themsevles, giving the children greater confidence and independence. With nutrition, staff noted that the children responded positively to vegetables and ate more vegatables. Staff also reported that children actively rejected unhealthy food such as sweets at school and at home. With the decreased intake of sweets, staff noticed that there was an increase in concentration and reduction in energy, especially in the hyperactive children.

Pre-school teachers appreciated the support that Gunawirra provided, in terms of receiving weekly training and support through Skype. Staff also felt that the art therapy sessions allowed the children to express their trauma in different ways, especially for children with additional needs. Staff also managed to relieve some of their stress through art therapy and learn new ways to manage the children from the art therapist. Although the costs of having an art therapist was high, the benefits outweighed the costs as staff felt the need for more sessions.

Visitations by the cultural advisor was also found to be helpful for both non-aboriginal and aboriginal staff. Non-aboriginal staff reported receiving feedback on how culturally aware they are and gained confidence to teach about Aboriginal cultur, while Aboriginal staff found that the addition of the cultural aspect to the program affirmed the role of culture in the children’s lives. Aboriginal staff reported that the cultural advisor served as a form of a “role model to the children.. taking culture to each of the centres”. Staff also mentioned wanting additional cultural training in their feedback about the program.

To read the evaluation report, click here.

Gunawirra is assessed as:
– having Indigenous ownership as more than half of its Board members have Aboriginal background.
– having community leadership as they partner with local indigenous and non-indigenous pre-schools such as Dalaigur and Scribbly Gum Pre-School.
– undergoing ongoing service evaluation. Their Young Aboriginal Mothers’ Groups and Five Big Ideas program were recently evaluated in a study conducted by Western Sydney University. The Young Aboriginal Mothers’ Group program is also going to be re-evaluated in 2021.

1 Gunawirra. (2021). 2021 Annual Report. Retrieved from: https://gunawirra.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/Annual-Report-2021.pdf 2 Ussher, J. M., Perz, J., Parton, C., & Charter, R. (2015). Constructions and experiences of the Gunawirra early intervention program for young Aboriginal mothers. Sydney: Western Sydney University, Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine. 3 Johnson, R. (2022, Feburary 22). Gunawirra – dreamtime word; the invisible seed of all creation. earthYARD. https://www.earthyard.com.au/blogs/one-good-thing/gunawirra 4 Perz, J.,Us sher, JM., Robinson, K.H., Parton, C., Metusela, C., Churruca, K., Metusela, L. (2016). The Five Big Ideas Program Evaluation: An examination of the process and efficacy of an early intervention program for Aboriginal preschool children, from the perspective of key stakeholders – teachers and program developers. Sydney: Western Sydney University, Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, 76 pp.

I-ASIST (National)

I-ASIST is a 2-day course developed by LivingWorks through consultation with Indigenous communities across Australia. ASIST workshop is the world’s leading course in suicide prevention. 

Address: Newcastle, NSW 2300, AUSTRALIA

Email: tegan.schefe@livingworks.com.au  
Phone: 1300 738 382

During the two-day interactive session, participants learn to apply a suicide intervention model in a culturally appropriate and respectful way. All I-ASIST trainers have a lived experience of suicide. The workshop is delivered by two trainers and can be tailored to suit the unique cultural needs of each community.

I-ASIST is designed to equip community leaders and service providers to identify someone who may be thinking of suicide. It helps caregivers recognise when someone may be at risk of suicide, explores how to connect with them in ways that understand and clarify that risk, increase their immediate safety and link them with further help. I-ASIST teaches skills that provide an understanding of the needs of a person with suicidal thoughts, and how to meet these needs through effective caregiving that empowers and supports the person in a suicidal crisis.

Over 80,000 people in Australia have attended ASIST which is available in all states and territories. Over 1,000,000 people worldwide have taken the workshop, and studies have shown that the ASIST method helps reduce suicidal feelings for those at risk.


I-assist is an evidence-based program that has been robustly evaluated in partnership with the University of Queensland.

The I-ASIST program has been co-designed and developed in consultation with Indigenous communities.

These guidelines describe how members of the public should provide first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who may be developing a mental illness or experiencing a mental health crisis.

Address: Level 6, 369 Royal Parade Parkville VIC 3052
Email: mhfa@mhfa.com.au
Phone: +61 3 9079 0200

Mental Health First Aid Guideline describe how members of the public should provide first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who may be developing a mental illness or experiencing a mental health crisis.

These guidelines are designed to accompany the series Guidelines for Providing Mental Health First Aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander Person. The role of the first aider is to assist the person until appropriate professional help is received or the crisis resolves.

Using a practical, evidence-based Action Plan, Mental Health First Aid courses equip people with the knowledge and skills to recognise the signs and symptoms of mental health problems, and to confidently provide the correct referral information and support to someone who may be developing a mental health problem or experiencing a mental health crisis.

The program has shown significant and promising results in improving mental health and social and emotional wellbeing literacy in relation to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health

To be updated in 2021

To be updated in 2021


Mindframe provides comprehensive national guidance, training and education on the safe reporting, portrayal and communication of suicide, mental ill-health, and alcohol and other drugs.

Contact: Program Manager

Phone: 02 49246900

Mindframe aims to build collaborative relationships with the media, universities, primary health networks and the sector through training sessions and workshops.

Mindframe training sessions and workshops support the evidence-based Mindframe guidelines for safe reporting, portrayals and communication about suicide, mental ill-health and alcohol and other drugs.

Mindframe training supports the aims to:

  • Reduce the stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental ill-health.
  • Minimise harm and copycat behaviour.
  • Increase help-seeking behaviour Improve mental health and wellbeing.

Issues to consider when communicating about suicide in Aboriginal communities

  • Why should I run the story?Consider whether the story needs to be run at all. A succession of stories can normalise suicidal behaviour.
  • Check the language you use does not sensationalise suicide e.g. consider using ‘non-fatal’ not ‘unsuccessful’; or ‘cluster of deaths’ rather than ‘suicide epidemic’ and limit the use of the term ‘suicide’.
  • Don’t be explicit about method.Most members of the media follow a code that the method and location of suicide is not described, displayed or photographed.
  • Suicide by a prominent figure.A story about the suicide of a prominent person can glamorise or prompt imitation suicide. Harm should be minimised wherever possible.
  • Positioning the story.Some evidence suggests a link between prominent placement of suicide stories and copycat suicide. Position the story on the inside pages of a paper, or further down in the order of reports in TV and radio news.
  • Interviewing the bereaved.The bereaved are often at risk of suicide themselves. Be sensitive to those who knew the person and allow community members time to grieve before participating in a story.
  • Naming the deceased. In many communities mention of a person who has passed away can cause great distress, as can showing their image. Consult with community members or the family about appropriate language and visuals and place a warning on the program.
  • Place the story in context.Reporting the underlying causes of suicide can help to increase understanding in the community. The story may be improved by canvassing both expert comment and the opinions of the local Indigenous community.
  • Include contacts for support services. Include contact details for medical and support services. This provides immediate support to those who may have been distressed by your story.

Issues to consider when communicating about social and emotional wellbeing

  • Media guidelines stress the right to privacy. Does the fact that this person has a mental illness really enhance the story? Are your sources appropriate? What is the possible impact of disclosure on the person’s life, especially in small communities?
  • Language and Stereotypes. Terms such as ‘lunatic’, ‘schizo’, ‘crazies’, ‘maniac’, and ‘psycho’, are still used by the media out of context.
  • Remember that no one person can speak for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. A story may be improved by canvassing both expert comment and the opinions of the local community.
  • Interviewing. Interviewing a person with a past or current mental illness requires sensitivity and discretion. Follow CBAA codesof conduct on appropriate interviewing.
  • Include contacts for support services.Include phone numbers and contact details for medical and support services. This provides immediate support for those who may have been prompted to seek help.
  • Most people with mental illness are able to recover with treatment and support.Referring to someone with mental ill-health as a victim is outdated. Mental ill-health is not a life sentence.

Training is available to:

  • Media outlets – print, broadcast and online
  • Universities – Specialising in public relations and journalism studies

Find out more

To be updated in 2021

We could not find evidence that this program has been evaluated.

To be updated in 2021

To be updated in 2021

Strong Spirit Strong Mind (WA)

Strong Spirit Strong Mind promotes the uniqueness of Aboriginal culture as a central strength in guiding efforts to manage and reduce mental health and alcohol and other drug related harms in Aboriginal communities.

Strong Spirit Strong Mind holds the Aboriginal Inner Spirit Model, in which the inner spirit is described as the centre of our being and emotions, and a strong inner spirit is what keeps people healthy and keeps them connected together.
Strong Spirit Strong Mind collects information and resources that
1. promote mental health and social emotional well-being,
2. promote reduced alcohol and other drug use,
3. are culturally appropriate training for workers working with Aboriginal people, and
4. are created for young people with alcohol and other drugs use.
Strong Spirit Strong Mind also collates information and the contact details of helplines and help centres all across Western Australia . It also gives out Youth Project Community Grants for projects that seek to target young Aboriginal people (aged 12–25 years) and improve their social and emotional well-being, and/or increase their awareness and knowledge of the risks associated with alcohol and other drug use.
Strong Spirit Strong Mind has also been involved in two campaigns: Stay Strong, Look After You and Your Mob Campaign and The Strong Spirit Strong Mind Youth Project. Stay Strong, Look After You and Your Mob Campaign seeks to educate others on social and emotional well-being strategies and supporting families and communities to gain and maintain their optimal level of social and emotional wellbeing, while The Strong Spirit Strong Mind Youth Project seeks to raise awareness of the harms associated with alcohol and other drug (AOD) issues & improve social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) among young Aboriginal people and their families and communities across Western Australia.
They also deliver a non-accredited training programs such as the Ways of Working with Aboriginal People Training that teaches individuals working in the Alcohol, Drug Use and Mental health space that service Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples how to interact with their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients. They also offer accredited training programs such as Certificate III in Community Services (CHC32015) and Certificate IV in Alcohol and Other Drugs (CHC43215).
Strong Spirit Strong Mind uses the Aboriginal Inner Spirit Model to illustrate the relationship between one’s spirit and their wellbeing.
The Aboriginal Inner Spirit Model suggests that ‘Our inner spirit is the centre of our being and emotions.
When our spirit feels strong, our mind feels strong.
Strong inner spirit is what keeps our people healthy and connects them together.
Strong inner spirit keeps the community strong and our country alive.
Strengthening our inner spirit is a step towards a healed future’.
As such, much of their work focuses on strengthening an individual’s spirit and mind so that they can live a better healed future.
An evaluation was conducted by the Mental Health Commission to evaluate the Strong Spirit Strong Mind Metro Project. The project aimed at promoting the consequences of the use of alcohol and drugs in a culturally appropriate manner and should serve as a prevention strategy. Below, we list some of their key findings:
– There is almost a universal acceptance of the potential negative consequences of using alcohol and other drugs.
– 83% of respondents indicated they were more aware of the harms associated with alcohol and other drug use as a result of the Campaign, with around a quarter naming each harm covered in the Campaign.


Strong Spirit Strong Mind is assessed as:
– having community consultation and co-design as the words Strong Spirit Strong Mind evolved in consultation with Aboriginal people from across Western Australia. These words embrace the importance of strengthening our ‘inner spirit’ and were inspired by the Aboriginal Inner Spirit (Ngarlu) Model by the late Joseph ‘Nipper’ Roe of the Yawaru and Karajarri people in North Western Australia.
– seeking to build the capacity of the community as they run courses such as the Cert 3 in Community Services (CHC32015) and Cert 4 in Alcohol and other Drugs (CHC43215). It also runs a training for service providers who work with Aboriginal people to teach them how approach them in a culturally safe way. Anyone within the AOD and MH sectors working with Aboriginal people is encouraged to attend. This course is non-accredited and delivered by Aboriginal People.

Western Australia Mental Health Commission (2016). Strong Spirit Strong Mind metro project: campaign evaluation. Perth: Western Australia Mental Health Commission. https://aodknowledgecentre.ecu.edu.au/key-resources/publications/32357/?title=Strong+Spirit+Strong+Mind+metro+project%3A+campaign+evaluation 

Suicide Story (Alice Springs, NT)

Suicide Story is a three-and-a-half-day suicide prevention program created for use in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereon Aboriginal) communities by Aboriginal people who live and work in remote communities. The workshop is structured around nine topics which are covered in an accompanying DVD and target community-based helpers.

Contact: Mental Health Association of Australia
Phone: 08 8950 4600 / Email: info@mhaca.org.au

Suicide Story was developed by the Mental Health Association of Central Australia (MHACA) in partnership with a Suicide Story Aboriginal Advisory Group . The latter consisted of Aboriginal people from remote communities in the central Northern Territory (NT) who ensured the cultural appropriateness of the program. Under the Suicide Story umbrella, workshops are delivered by trained local Aboriginal facilitators. A local and culturally specific approach is used to guide participants through the process of understanding suicide and reducing the associated stigma so that they can effectively identify and respond to the signs of an impending suicide attempt in a family member or friend. This approach respects the unique needs and issues within each community.

Suicide Story was launched in March 2010 and funded by the NT Department of Health and Families and the NT Primary Health Networks to support healthcare workers and Aboriginal people living in remote communities. Suicide Story is a prevention-oriented program and responds to requests from communities using a capacity building approach. Suicide Story was adapted from the MHACA, Life Promotion Program (LPP) which delivered ‘gatekeeper training’ to healthcare workers and Aboriginal people who might encounter people at high risk of suicide. A two-day Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) workshop was used in the NT in 2001 and was consistently in demand among those working in the community healthcare sector in Alice Springs. However, it was found that this model did not address some of the core issues central to the needs of Aboriginal people, especially those living in remote regions and town camps. Through extensive consultations with Aboriginal people and discussions with related service providers, the LPP team began to further develop this resource and the style of training to tailor to the needs of Aboriginal people. Suicide Story was created.

Utilising a community development and action research approach, Suicide Story is a community suicide awareness and prevention training program which is developed, led and delivered by and for central Australian Aboriginal people. Over the years, the content and delivery of the program have been reworked and adjusted through a continuous cycle of participatory action research and quality improvement processes according to extensive feedback from facilitators and participants.  A Suicide Story Aboriginal Advisory Group has been maintained to ensure ongoing cultural safety and the integrity of storytelling throughout the Program. This has optimised its effectiveness and ability to be applied in multiple communities and to multiple language groups. A key message to participants is that there are no right or wrong answers.

The program incorporates a DVD composed of short films that feature the voices of Aboriginal people, combined with animation, artwork, music, pictures and posters to generate scenarios, conversations and discussions. The DVD focuses on nine topics relevant to suicide, and accompanies nine modules that are completed over the three-and-a-half-day program to address the following questions:

  • Should we talk about suicide?
  • Why is suicide a problem in Aboriginal communities and how big is the problem?
  • What leads people to think about suicide?
  • How do I recognize a person at high risk of suicide?
  • What can families and community members do to help protect their community from suicide?
  • What gets in the way of helping?
  • What are good ways to support people at high risk of suicide?
  • How might people heal after the death of a loved one by suicide?
  • How can we keep the helper safe?

Core elements of the program are:

Listening … sharing … learning
By listening, sharing and learning from the stories of Aboriginal people, a relevant contextual picture of suicide is developed. Suicide Story contains meaningful training material that is respectful of the people, culture, language and context of people’s lives in Central Australia including Alice Springs, Santa Teresa, Yuendumu, Tennant Creek and Gove Peninsula. It includes drawings, animation and film that have been added to enhance this unique, culturally developed training resource.

Local artwork
In 2006, women from the remote community of Santa Teresa painted two banners for World Suicide Prevention Day which portrayed a local understanding of some of the causes of suicidal behaviour and some of the ways to care for people who display suicidal behaviour. This artwork and the associated story remind participants that Suicide Story is about ‘raw and real’ experiences. It is based on the premise that the best way of reducing the rates and pain of suicide for Aboriginal people is to guide them to understand their own experience and to bring to them new learnings in the best possible way.

A culturally sensitive approach
Suicide Story provides a culturally sensitive approach to understanding the issues surrounding suicide. It recognises the importance of learning through sharing stories and sharing knowledge through recognisable symbols, images and language in Aboriginal communities. The program uses a collaborative approach that allows community members to work with service providers in a culturally safe space.

The program’s mission is to target suicide by empowering local facilitators. This can be achieved by increasing the skills, knowledge and confidence of participants to work with at-risk people. In turn, local facilitators can work to improve the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal people in remote communities of Central Australia and restore their hope for the future.

The objectives of Suicide Story are to:

  • Deliver Suicide Story only within communities where Elders have formally requested the program and then, only if the community is considered ready for change
  • Deliver suicide prevention workshops in remote regions of the NT free of charge and to interstate workshops for a service fee
  • Accommodate varying levels of English literacy and different ways of learning among program participants
  • Empower adults in remote Aboriginal communities with the tools to identify the warning signs of suicide
  • Increase participant awareness of the problem of grief and trauma in their communities and to understand how this has been impacted by historical and social factors
  • Debunk the myth (especially among some Elders and smaller communities) that suicide threats, especially by young people, are ‘just kids mucking up’
  • Refer members of the community who seek extra and/or ongoing resources to the relevant provider(s)
  • Overcome the lack of understanding of some communities about the pain some people experience, especially in the smaller communities and homelands where fewer people have experienced suicide first-hand
  • Identify and support networks of appropriate people within traditional communities who would like to undergo training and work in their own regions/communities
  • Work with the community to identify the issues, the requirements and how this can be achieved within the context of service providers and existing programs
  • Encourage service providers to attend workshops to increase their capacity to identify the warning signs of suicide
  • Explore impulsive suicide, suicide as a threat, along with blame and payback in Aboriginal people within a cultural and local context
  • Explore the history of social injustice and legislated change and the consequent losses which pertain to current suicide issues in Aboriginal communities
  • Examine issues around traditional language and skin groups and whether transgressing traditional systems exacerbates suicide rates and impacts the availability of resources for the transgressors.

The DVD helps participants to realise that there are many Aboriginal people who are willing to ‘talk up strong on suicide’ because of family members lost to suicide. From March 2017 to June 2018, Suicide Story delivered workshops to 141 participants. Each year, six workshops are delivered in the NT: two in the Top End and four for Central and Barkly regions. On average, around 20 people attend each workshop.

Suicide Story has been evaluated in 20121, 20142 and 20193. The program received recognition in 2017 by Lifeline with the LiFE Award for Excellence in Suicide Prevention in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander category4. The program was recognised for the strong collaboration of developers with the Suicide Story Aboriginal Advisory Group to develop a curriculum. In the LiFE award evaluation, it was stated that 97% of participants gained skills to identify the warning signs of suicide and 98% stated that the workshop ‘strengthened their fire’ to support suicide prevention in their community4.

In a review of mental health and suicide prevention services, the Northern Territory Mental Health Coalition described Suicide Story as an example of an invaluable prevention resource which required long-term and secure funding5. Reviewers expanded with an explanation of how Suicide Story aimed to reduce the need to remove people at risk of suicide from their community by providing local people with the skills, confidence and ability to deal with attempted suicides or suicide ideation5.

The most recent evaluation3 sought to answer three questions which related to:

1) assessing the impact at the individual and community level,

2) how this impact can be strengthened, and

3) the continued benefits after the delivery of the workshop.

The findings confirmed that the program is having a positive impact on the resilience of individuals and the community through increased awareness of grief, trauma and suicidal ideation; normalisation of discussions around suicide; and, increased confidence of individuals to proactively intervene. The factors that moderate these actions include local governance, local language, local facilitators and being culturally appropriate.

The 2019 evaluationrecommended that:

  • the program proceed without fundamental changes except for the review and up-dating of the general materials and resources and the development of a youth-focused program with corresponding learning materials.
  • a greater governance role for the program’s advisory group and increased governance by local Aboriginal community-led organisations with a reduced role of the Mental Health Association of Central Australia in the management of the program.
  • greater attention be paid to the preliminary groundwork prior to the program and an increased number of follow-up visits post-program.
  • considering the proven effectiveness of the program, Suicide Story be run more frequently and expanded through increased training and development of local facilitators and support staff.

This last recommendation would require increased liaison and awareness-building by funding and government bodies as to the value and effectiveness of the program which would lead to increased resourcing.

Suicide Story builds strength and capacity in Aboriginal communities and resilience in individuals and families. Specifically, it promotes participant capacity to initiate, plan, lead and sustain strategies to promote the awareness of suicide risk and subsequent prevention plans within a community.

Suicide Story also provides materials and resources which address the needs of Aboriginal peoples in diverse community settings. This program also provides culturally appropriate community activities that engage youth, build cultural strengths, leadership, life skills and social competencies, resulting in life promotion and resilience-building. Suicide Story also builds long-term, sustainable prevention strategies that build resilience and promote social and emotional wellbeing. It is specifically adapted from programs for the general public and made appropriate for Aboriginal families and children. Suicide Story also offers a coordinated approach through multi-sectoral co-ordination across levels and sectors of government and supports regional and local co-ordination of suicide prevention. There are agreements to support collaborative approaches to joint case management to ensure continuity of services and support for higher risk clients. There are also strong partnerships between services, agencies and communities.

Suicide Story demonstrates high standards in suicide prevention. There is a comprehensive plan to develop and support the participation of Aboriginal people in the suicide prevention and wellbeing workforce with a focus on community engagement, cultural awareness in wellbeing services, early intervention and a focus on quality improvement for social and emotional wellbeing and mental health care.

Suicide Story was rated very highly as strong evidence of effectiveness and best practice. Drawing on a strong theory base of what works in suicide prevention training, the program has been adapted to be culturally responsive. This is a very organised, well-structured and well-designed program with a clear set of deliverables and reflective practices. The program is able to be flexible, dynamic and accommodates different learning styles, languages, traditions, issues and levels of readiness. It is designed using logic and an approach that adheres to culture, a local approach by local people, a respect for Elders and Aboriginal spiritual and cultural values.

Finally, the program strongly aligns with the guiding principles of the CBPATSISP Evaluation Framework. It emphasises the need to ensure the representation of local communities. The  program examines the needs of each community and responds accordingly with an underlying emphasis on the significance of culture, history, and human rights. The program also incorporates an individualised plan for participants to identify the services and stakeholders and the ways in which the Suicide Story team can co-ordinate their work with the existing infrastructure within their community. This allows the program to address more pressing concerns that are specific to a community and advocate for any identified gaps in service.

  1. Lopes J, Lindeman M, Taylor K, et al. Cross cultural education in suicide prevention: Development of a training resource for use in Central Australian Indigenous communities. Advances in Mental Health 2012;10(3):224-34. doi: 10.5172/jamh.2012.10.3.224
  2. Evaluation of suicide prevention activities: Suicide Story Train the Trainer 2014
  3. Guenther, J., & Mack, S. (2019). Evaluation of Suicide Story, Final Report. Batchelor: Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education
  4. Suicide Prevention Australia. 2017 LiFE Award Winners for Excellence in Suicide Prevention Brisbane, Australia 2017
  5. Northern Territory Mental Health Coalition. Mental Health & Suicide Prevention Service Review, 2017.

Also see:

Healthcare Management Advisors. Suicide Prevention in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities: Learnings from a meta-evaluation of community-led Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander suicide prevention programs. 2016.

The Seeding Group (Qld)

The Seedling Group is committed to working with Indigenous communities on projects to build capacity and hope – by the people for the people. The Seedling Group creates bespoke, culturally safe training sessions, and specialises in building on mainstream process and practices to be culturally inclusive. This includes incorporating many different ways of knowing and doing, cultural practices and learning on country. Specialises in developing and delivering culturally responsive training and therapeutic interventions

Website: https://www.theseedlinggroup.org/contact
Email: pilbara@wacoss.org.au
Phone: 0477 708 836

The Seedling Group offer services that are based on trauma-informed, evidence-based and culturally sound practices. The Seedling Group combine generations of healing knowledge with western psychological and neurological sciences to serve their clients. Services include professional supervision, indigenous research, psychology services, training, cultural projects and collaboration and strategy.

The objectives of THE SEEDING GROUP  includes:

  • Working in Community and promoting capacity building
  • Psychology Services
  • Trauma informed supervision for staff
  • Social and Emotional Wellbeing resource building and facilitation
  • Training delivery around cultural competence and trauma informed practice
  • Small Business building

We have found that understanding the impacts of trauma has the power to enable systems to repair and communities and individuals to heal.

We believe that understanding trauma allows people to make strong informed decisions about their lives. Our services are based on trauma-informed, evidence based and culturally sound practices. We combine the generations of healing knowledge with western psychological and neurological sciences to benefit our clients.

Our evaluation of the implementation of services has shown that understanding the impacts of trauma has the power to enable systems to repair and communities and individuals to heal.

The Djirruwang Aboriginal Mental Health Worker Education and Training Program (NSW)

The Djirruwang Aboriginal Mental Health Worker Education and Training Program is an Australian, clinically based, tertiary level mental health course designed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Contact: Faye McMillan, Program Director, Djirruwang
School of Nursing, Midwifery & Indigenous Health, Charles Sturt University,
Wagga Wagga NSW 2678
Ph/Fax: (02) 6933 4202 /Email: fmcmillan@csu.edu.au

The Djirruwang Aboriginal Mental Health Worker Education and Training Program (The Djirruwang Program) pioneered the establishment of an Australian, clinically based, tertiary level mental health course designed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereon Aboriginal) people. It was the first course to incorporate the National Practice Standards for the Mental Health Workforce (The Practice Standards) and embed the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid Certificate within its curriculum structure1. The program has restricted entry and is designed for Aboriginal people to gain high quality knowledge, skills and attitudes in the field of mental health, building on existing knowledge and combining mental health theory with clinical practice. The program provides the opportunity for Aboriginal people to gain formal mental health qualifications at diploma, associate degree and degree levels2. The Djirruwang Program is an important example of fostering an Aboriginal mental health workforce to improve Aboriginal mental health outcomes.  This is one of the four priority areas of the National Mental Health Commission as described in A Contributing Life: the 2012 National Report Card on Mental Health and Suicide Prevention3 and further acknowledged in the 5th National Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Plan (the Fifth Plan). The guiding document for this priority is the National Strategic Framework for Aboriginal Mental Health and Social & Emotional Wellbeing 2017 – 2023 (NSF). The NSF has listed the development and support for emerging workforces under Action Area 1an effective and empowered mental health and social and emotional wellbeing workforce. It also lists and notes that additional support is required for the development of specialist Aboriginal mental health education courses.

The key goal of the Djirruwang Program is to develop a skilled Aboriginal workforce within the mental healthcare system to address the over-representation of Aboriginal people with high levels of depression, psychotic disorders and suicidal behaviours in communities. The program has incorporated a mainstream understanding of clinical mental healthcare together with cultural elements. It seeks to increase the understanding of the burden of mental ill-health and distress.  Further, it seeks to address the negative impacts on Aboriginal social and emotional wellbeing through the lens of the ongoing impact of colonisation, along with current health and social circumstances4 5.

The program has been developed and refined over many years by key clinicians, Aboriginal leaders, organisations, health disciplines and communities working in close partnership and with reciprocal learning to produce both a curriculum and a delivery which has won national awards6. The program emphasises the importance of recognising Aboriginal cultural experiences and knowledge within the mental health curriculum and providing a culturally safe environment to facilitate effective outcomes1. The program elevates and legitimates the importance of Aboriginal Mental Health Workers as equally significant to psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses and occupational therapists in addressing the social and emotional wellbeing and mental health needs of Aboriginal people1. Program co-ordinators state that failing to acknowledge the important role of mainstream clinical care is inappropriate and only further exacerbates the stress levels of mental health workers and is likely to result in increased complications for clients and their families.  At the extreme end, this could even become the subject of a coronial investigation1.

The aims of the Djirruwang Program are to enable Aboriginal people to:

  • Develop the appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes to work as an Aboriginal Mental Health Worker
  • Develop the skills needed to work effectively in a community mental health setting
  • Develop the skills to assist communities to identify mental health needs and initiate primary prevention and early intervention programs1 7 6.

Since its inception the Djirruwang Program has undertaken significant developments that have contributed to the program’s success. These include:

  • Periodic external evaluations to improve and build the evidence base
  • Ongoing program review as an ongoing quality performance issue
  • Embedding the National Practice Standards for the Mental Health Workforce
  • Achieving professional recognition of the qualification of Bachelor of Health Science (Mental Health) by Indigenous Allied Health Australia (IAHA) 2012
  • Increasing the number of Aboriginal graduates in the mental health workforce
  • Increasing understanding of the importance of incorporating both clinical and cultural understanding in addressing suicide and mental health issues
  • In 2019, there had been 257 graduates and 77 students enrolled in the program and graduates have gained employment in senior roles in many areas and across a range of settings2

The program has continually been evaluated by the University with input from the mental health professional sector. Ongoing evaluations of the program have recorded the direction and continual building of evidence. Each evaluation has found the program to be unique, valuable and meeting the needs of health services by developing a well-qualified Aboriginal mental health workforce1. An external evaluation of the Djirruwang Program was undertaken in 2010 and resulted in revisions to the skills, knowledge and attributes of the students to enhance the professionalism of graduates1. The review highlighted key areas for engagement with industry partners, the University and the student cohort which has led to informed curricula development and change. This new curricula, which commenced in 2013, includes a greater emphasis on dual diagnosis, pharmacology and understanding of the diversity within the Australian demographics.  Further to this, the course had minor curricula amendments in 2015 and is currently undergoing a course review due for completion in 20202.

Embedding culture in the curriculum
The Djirruwang Program positively validates and affirms cultural difference as making an ongoing contribution within the mental health area1. Brideson et al.1 emphasised the critical importance and value of embedding culture and affirming processes as a key strategy to address the burden of mental health issues and suicide within Aboriginal communities and the role that the Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector can play in this regard. They draw on the findings of an economic review by Dockery8 which argued that incorporating cultural elements into curricula and models of delivery of education and training which affirm and recognise Aboriginal culture are likely to improve outcomes across all sectors and promote a positive sense of cultural identity for Aboriginal students8. On page ten, Dockery makes the point:

If a strong sense of continuity of self-identity safeguards young people against taking their own lives, it may also have positive impacts in other domains in which people ‘invest’ in their futures, such as education, health, a career and relationships with family and community

In 2013, an independent evaluation of the program9 was published by ATRD Consultants. It was concluded that overall the Djirruwang Program is highly valued by Local Health District (LHD) mental health services across NSW and is increasing staff knowledge and understanding of Aboriginal mental health and cultural issues. It is also improving the capacity of LHDs to provide accessible and relevant services to local Aboriginal people. The Program is providing a unique opportunity for Aboriginal people to gain valuable skills and a tertiary qualification to work as mental health professionals, support their communities, and be role models for others. A perceived weakness is that the program does not relate to specific professional qualifications in one of nursing, social work, psychology or occupational therapy9.

The program values Aboriginal people’s experiences and affirms all aspects of culture within the curriculum, structural arrangements and implementation. At the same time, it incorporates clinical guidelines and practices to make a significant contribution to health and social services professions and one that values Aboriginal people at the core of all developments. This is an exemplar of mental health workforce training and of significant relevance to supporting mental health and social and emotional wellbeing and reducing suicide and self-harm through the provision of training, skills and professional qualifications at all levels.

  1. Brideson T, Havelka J, McMillan F, et al. The Djirruwang Program: cultural affirmation for effective mental health. In: Dudgeon P, Milroy H, Walker R, eds. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice2014:523-32.
  2. Charles Sturt University. Bachelor of Health Science (Mental Health) Articulated Set 2019 [Available from: https://www.csu.edu.au/handbook/handbook19/courses/BachelorofHealthScience(MentalHealth)ArticulatedSet.html.
  3. Beyond Blue. A Contributing Life: The 2012 National Report Card on Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Beyond Blue; 2012 [Available from: https://www.beyondblue.org.au/media/news/news/2012/12/20/the-2012-National-Report-Card-on-Mental-Health-and-Suicide-Prevention accessed 2019 June 4.
  4. Gee G, Dudgeon P, Schultz C, et al. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social and emotional wellbeing. In: Dudgeon P, Milroy H, Walker R, eds. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice2014:55-68.
  5. Parker R, Milroy H. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health: an overview. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice 2nd ed Canberra: Department of The Prime Minister and Cabinet 2014:25-38.
  6. NSW Health. Walk Together, Learn Together, Work Together: A Practical Guide for the Training of Aboriginal Mental Health Professionals in New South Wales, 2010.
  7. Kanowski L, Westerway J. Koori Mental Health Outreach Workers Training Program, 93/94: Goulburn Health Service, 1996.
  8. Dockery AM. Cultural dimensions of Indigenous participation in education and training. Australian Conference of Economists (ACE09) Paper, 2009.
  9. ARTD Consultants. Evaluation of the NSW Aboriginal Mental Health Worker Training Program: Final Report Executive Summary, 2013.

The Western Australian Aboriginal Leadership Institute (Yorga Djenna Bidi Aboriginal Women's Leadership Program) (WA)

Yorga Djenna Bidi is designed to bring together Aboriginal women from all ages, occupations, education levels and experience to learn skills, gain confidence and build networks. Based out of Perth, this Program has led inspired cohorts into their communities with the capabilities and knowledge needed so that they can be engaging with their own, and their community’s, future.


Phone: 08 9420 7239

Email: admin@waali.org.au

The Western Australian Aboriginal Leadership Institute’s (WAALI) vision is to be a place of leadership learning through cultural ways of working. It was launched in 2018 to help overcome Aboriginal disadvantage by building leadership and governance capabilities amongst Aboriginal people, and inspire participants to affect meaningful change. Another inititative designed by WAALI is the Emerging Leaders Program (supported by ATCO). It was the first program of its kind, and was created to improve educational outcomes by strengthening cultural identity, self development and connection to culture and community. WAALI operates in Perth and is an independednt, for purpose organisation.
The Yorga Djenna Bidi (YDB) Aboriginal Women’s Leadership Program was created by WAALI who’s purpose is to inspire and support Aboriginal people to take up leadership opportunities, hence strengthening their families and communities. The Program is specifically tailored for women who aspire to to influence, lead and generate positive change. YDB is made up of a three day cultural immersion retreat which involves an on-Country exploration with local Noongar WAALI ALumni, health and wellbeing exploration and guest speakers. Being held twice per year, the programss run over a 5 month period which includes the retreat, three two-day modules and a Graduation Day upon completion.
The overall objective of WAALI is to be a place of leadership learning through cultural ways of working.
There are five main objectives in the Yorga Djenna Bidi Aboriginal Women’s Leadership Program.
1. Enhanced cultural consciousness and maintaining cultural identity in community and the workplace.
2. Build strength-based resilient leadership by knowing your unconscious motivators and values.
3. Identify self-care needs and navigate holistically (mind, body, spirit).
4. Become highly self-aware and able to embody their values and personal purpose in their leadership behaviours.
5. Develop leadership skills to solve complex challenges (conflict management; building trust and reliability).
According to the WAALI Annual Report 2021-2022:
– One cohort completed the Program in the 2021-2022 reporting period.
– The first time WAALI has offered a scholarship to the winner of Miss Naidoc.
– 85% of participants say the Program has increased their level of confidence in their ability to become effective leaders in their communities.
– 70% have an improved understanding of the issues confronting the Aboriginal community.
– 80% of participants have a better understanding of their talents and passions and how they can work to make a difference in the community.

To be updated..


The WAALI programs are assessed to having:
– Indigenous Ownership: It was created by Aboriginal People for Aboriginal People. There is symbolic meaning behind the logo, with it representing Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people walking together, with the yellow digging sticks representing Aboriginal women and the red boomerangs representing Aboriginal men. Finally, the inner circle represents the cyle of life. In addition, several members of their board identifies as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural background. Furthermore, WAALI engages Elders to contribute and guide WAALI and facilitate workshops for their Yorga Djenna Bidi participants and Kwopertok Yorga (solid women) Alumni. The Elders also frequently provide Cultural advice to participants, alumni, staff and the WAALI Board.
– Community Leadership: WAALI works closely with other Indigenous organisations such as Bindi Bindi Dreaming and Voice of Hope.
– Community Consultation and Co-design: Aboriginal elders, Kwopertok Yorga Alumni and WAALI Ambassadors are all involved in facilitating the Program by offering support and guidance.
– Evaluation: internal review takes place through the annual reports with documentation of timelines and outcomes presented for public interest.
– Capacity Building: Once graduated, participants are modelling inspiring leadership in their communities and also attending and participating in events and other programs. During the 2021-2022 reporting period, WAALI secured further funding opportunities that have allowed growth and expansion of the programs.

Walkabout Wellbeing Warrior Suicide Prevention Visual Aid Training

The ‘I’m Here to Talk/ I’m Here to Listen’ workshop is a suicide prevention training delivered by Gamilaraay man, Brian Dowd, a Trauma & Recovery Specialist & Suicide Attempt Survivor. His vision is for individuals who have attended this workshop to receive ‘I’m Here to Talk / I’m Here to Listen’ t-shirts and wrist bands to be worn in communities as a visual aid for people requiring assistance and support to be easily identified as a trained “Walkabout Warriors”.

Email: walkaboutbarber@gmail.com
Phone: Brian at 0477 887 777
The ‘I’m Here to Talk/ I’m Here to Listen’ training workshop by Gamilaraay man Brian Dowd who has had personal experience with suicide (click here to find out more)
The training workshop is part of a ‘I’m Here to Talk / I’m Here to Listen’ Suicide Prevention Campaign. The campaign aims to help individuals who are doing it tough and at risk of self-harm to be able to identify an individual clearly and quickly who has been trained and has taken an oath to become a “Walkabout Wellbeing Warrior” and a visual self harm deterrent within their community to reduce their risk of suicide.
The 2-day training workshop includes sessions on ‘Buttons & Triggers Around Suicidal Behaviour’, ‘Effects of Suicide on Friends, Family, & Community’. Attendees will also be required to put the skills they learnt into practice through role plays.
Individuals who attend this training should have an up to date Working with Children’s Check and a Criminal Record Check. Upon completion of the course, Walkabout Wellbeing Warriors will be equipped with specific localised information (e.g., numbers, contacts, and names of current community referral agencies) who are already providing assistance within the community and can act as a Connector between the individual seeking help and the referral agency providing assistance.

The overall aim of the I’m Here to Talk / I’m Here to Listen campaign is for individuals who feel alone and who have not got the confidence to approach a stranger to ask for help, to have the ability to walk up to one of the trained Walkabout Wellbeing Warriors (as identified by the t-shirt and wrist bands that will be given to individuals upon completion of their training) to be heard, engaged with and receive the required help needed.

To be updated.

To be updated.

Walkabout Wellbeing Warrior Suicide Prevention Visual Aid Training is assessed as having:
– Indigenous ownership as the founder of this program is a Gamilaraay man.
– community leadership as trained Walkabout Wellbeing Warriors will be euipped with specific localised information (e.g., numbers, contacts, and names of current community referral agencies) who can provide help to individuals who are in need.

We Al-li

We Al-li is a training provider that offers Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and non-indigenous people an educational approach to assist them in working with communities to heal the effects of intergenerational trauma. The workshops have been informed by Aboriginal Australians and include traditional healing with western models and theories for healing trauma within the individual, families and the community.

Contact: Caroline (Carlie) Atkinson
email address: caroline.atkinson@wealli.com.au

The Culturally Informed Trauma Integrated Healing Approach (CITIHA) of We Al-li began in 1996 through the work of Emeritus Professor Judy Atkinson AM who is a Jiman and Bundjalung woman. Her doctorate has been the basis for a number of courses of undergraduate study as well as a postgraduate degree. The approach is also delivered through workshops within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and other organisations seeking to better understand healing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

The approach recognises intergenerational trauma and has mapped likely behaviours through six generations.1 The continuing effects of trauma are believed to lead to lower employment and therefore ongoing distress. It also has as its base the integration of personal learning and professional caring through a holistic and multi-discipline approach using a strengths-base model for healing. We Al-li uses the term “educaring” which is a combination of education and caring and describes an individual who has lived experience and uses a trauma-informed application of knowledge to help others learn about their trauma. Therefore the program uses as facilitators those who have learned about their personal trauma and can assist others.

At the tertiary level there is a reliance on written texts and formal instruction as well as instruction on managing yarning circles. At the community level, elders are engaged to develop the style of interaction and the content for their community. At the community level there is less use of written texts and more culturally-appropriate interactions. We Al-li also has 13 other workshops that can be contextualised for children, young people and adults who suffer from trauma or domestic violence. Included in these workshops is content for those who plan to assist those experiencing trauma. Each of these workshops is carefully mapped and is run by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander facilitators.

The Culturally Informed Trauma Integrated Healing Approach (CITIHA) workshop intends to:

  • create safe therapeutic environments in providing trauma informed care and practice to diverse groups – implementing practices that acknowledge and demonstrate respect for specific cultural backgrounds.
  • understand trauma and its impact on individuals, families and social groups.
  • construct and use geno-grams as trauma audits for self and others, to understand client trauma stories and integrate and coordinate care to meet the needs of clients and deepen workforce skills and responses.
  • support safe relationship building (with clients and in the workforce) through using geno-grams to name resiliency as a strength and protective factor which promotes recovery and healing for clients and a felt sense of competency in workers.
  • establish ‘what’s in the field’, through yarning circles – which support victims / survivors of trauma to regain a sense of control over their daily lives, actively involving them in individual, family or communal recovery.
  • share power and governance, including involving community members in the design and evaluation of programs through yarning circles.
  • understand and respond to the need to care-for-self while caring-for clients, in response to vicarious trauma, its development, risks and protective factors and barriers, in developing communities of practice and growing communities of care.
  • utilise a self and other reflective ‘Elders Circle’ as a review – evaluative process.

The use of the Culturally Informed Trauma Integrated Healing Approach (CITIHA) has created a group of facilitators who are able to assist others and therefore develop capacity building within the community. These facilitators are decentralised and include not only those who are members of staff but another 15 people who have completed the Masters of Community Recovery. This Master’s qualification is not currently run however the Southern Cross University runs the Bachelor of Trauma and Healing which has been developed by We Al-li. We Al-li has run 143 workshops since 2013 with a total of 2,145 participants.

The current iteration of the CITIHA has been co-designed with the Aboriginal Family Violence Prevention Services for use across Australia. We Al-li also has formal links to other organisations such as:

  • WA Crime Prevention and Domestic Violence Unit
  • the Mental Health Coordinating Council in NSW
  • Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia
  • Aboriginal Medical Services Alliance Northern Territory

In 2015, We Al-li was asked by the Kunga Family Violence Program at the Alice Springs Detention Centre to provide 20 days of education and personal development to a group of ten female offenders in September, 2015. These women had suffered intergenerational violence – physical and sexual – and had been imprisoned for violent assaults usually in self-defence against perceived violence. We Al-li used the educaring model which includes six stages:

  1. Creating a culturally safe environment.
  2. Finding and telling their stories.
  3. Making sense of the stories.
  4. Feeling the feelings.
  5. Moving through layers of loss and grief, ownership, choices.
  6. Reclaiming a return to wholeness.

An evaluation was undertaken for this 20-day workshop by Deakin University3.

We Al-li for Kungas Units are unique and contextualised for those who participated. Each of the three sections were coordinated to ensure consistency and continuity throughout the workshop with separate completion certificates for each of the units of study which are shown below.

Anger Violence Boundaries Safety

  • Dadirri – mindfulness reflective practice – safety principles for participation.
  • Definitions of anger violence boundaries safety Aboriginal family violence.
  • How we communicate: feelings, perceptions, interpretations, feelings, intention, action.
  • A Bad Anger (anger is not bad in itself – it is what we do with it that matters).
  • Identifying and respond to anger triggers
  • Anger and childhood – adult behaviours.
  • Hot violence – cold violence – assertiveness
  • Anger triggers – Jealousy, gossiping, substance misuse
  • Managing anger – changing behaviours, body awareness

Loss Grief and Trauma

  • Definitions of loss, grief, bereavement, trauma. Differences between loss, grief and trauma.
  • Impact of multiple losses stages of loss and grief recovery – inside feelings, outside feelings
  • Making a loss history graph (two day intensive review of loss and grief triggers relevant to anger and violence, and individual counselling for each person).
  • Creative non-verbal creative approaches to grief work.
  • Intensive body awareness – how the body carries grief and anger.

Re-creating the circle of wellbeing

  • A public health model of being well – physical body, sexuality, emotions, relationships, environments, spirit, culture, identity.
  • Reviewing physical body sexuality.
  • Reviewing emotions relationships environment.
  • Reviewing spirit, culture, identity – life purpose.

At the time of completing the evaluation report, five of the ten women had been released from prison. The findings confirmed:

  1. The value and importance of Kungas to the women upon release. Each woman has immediately made contact with Kungas for support with Centrelink, housing, and emotional support with transition.
  2. A desire for more information and to continue the learning relationship with We Al-li. Highlighting the need for local women to be skilled to run the workshops and for Kungas staff to do the training to be able to supervise on the ground with We Al-li supervising from a distance. All of the women had contacted We Al-li for more information on hot/cold anger and intergenerational violence and to keep learning about what was begun in the We Al-li for Kungas program.

The evaluator noted that:

“We Al-li exists at a nexus of education, health, wellbeing, and Indigenous pedagogy. We Al-li Educaring draws on both Indigenous and non-Indigenous pedagogies and healing in a unique way and involves understandings of Aboriginal culture and lore facilitated by Aboriginal cultural Elders.” p.15

The We Al-li program had a significant impact on women in preparing for their release which is critical to strengthen their social and emotional wellbeing and reduce risk behaviours that can lead to suicidal ideation. The results of one-to-one meetings by participants with the facilitators identified strengths, challenges, plans for change, goals and a support network. While each participant’s report is unique there were some commonalities amongst many or all of them including:

  • Practicing Dadirri (a goal for 6/10 women) – practicing Dadirri, quiet still awareness, deep listening.
  • Wanting more study that leads to some work that fits in with family and cultural commitments (a goal for 10/10 women) women wanted to learn more on topics within the course, environmental or ranger work.
  • Staying away from grog, and/or family who misuse substances (a goal for 10/10 women) This was recognised as one of the things that led most women to prison. This was the most common concern for women about being released; staying away from trouble. Learning ways to say ‘no’ and safe was was highly valued.
  • Being able to identify ways of staying safe and having boundaries (a goal for 9/10 women) Going through specific and likely scenarios was part of the planning; ‘what will you do if… ?’
  • Knowing Kungas is there to support upon release (a goal for 10/10 women)

As We Al-li acted as a support for the Kunga Family Violence Program, most of the recommendations were targeted to the local program. However, the evaluation did make a number of recommendations for We Al-li. Some of these recommendations are:

  • engage earlier with the prison staff and offenders prior to the workshops to ensure that there is full understanding from all parties
  • build a capacity within the local prison and community so that the facilitation of the workshops can be done more cost effectively and without the need for external consultants
  • develop an assessment plan to be used during the delivery of the workshop so that high quality data can be gathered for use in the workshop and after for an evaluation and,
  • ensure that a longitudinal evaluation be in place to measure the wellbeing of the participants as well as rates of reoffending

We Al-li and the educational content that it provides has at the outset had a cultural and community focus and there was consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Elders regarding the content. Through the years of operation We Al-li has encouraged local governance within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities by ensuring that Elders are involved in the content and workshop management in their communities. We Al-li develops a capacity for those who have participated in the training to continue to provide assistance in healing trauma within the community.

We Al-li, through Judy Atkinson and her staff ensure that formal ethical principles are adhered to as well as ensuring that the delivery of training is done in a culturally-appropriate way and with facilitators who have lived-experience. Each workshop has at least one Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander facilitator and the facilitators can attend to those who experience difficulty with the emotional affect that the subject matter may generate. Additionally, local community members are able to volunteer to assist in the facilitation of the workshop.

Formal partnerships are maintained with other organisations such as universities, Aboriginal medical services and professional organisations. Each workshop seeks input and reviews from the participants regarding the quality and the personal benefit of the workshop. These comments are summarised and returned to the Elders and the community. Additionally the data is used to improve the workshops.

The We Al-li organisation shows through its work that it demonstrates very highly as strong evidence of effectiveness and best practice.

1. Merida Blanco in Levine, P. & Kline, M. (2007) Trauma through a Child’s Eyes. Berkley. California North Atlantic Books.

2. Culturally Informed Trauma Integrated Healing Approach to Care and Practice – An Indigenous approach in developing worker skills. Training Brief.

3. Applying a We Al-li Educaring Framework to Address Histories of Violence with Aboriginal Women. Deakin University. 2017

Further reading

Atkinson, J., Nelson, J., Brooks, R., Atkinson, C., & Ryan, K. (2014) Addressing individual and community
transgenerational trauma. In P. Dudgeon, H. Milroy, and R. Walker (Eds.), Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice
 (2nd ed.), (pp. 289-305). Canberra, ACT: C’wealth of Australia.

Wesley LifeForce Suicide Prevention Training for Indigenous Community Workers (National)

The Wesley LifeForce Suicide prevention training is a culturally responsive suicide prevention resource and training package with protocols and the curriculum specifically adapted for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community workers.

Contact: Mary McNamara, Training Services Manager
Phone: (02) 9857 2570 /Mobile: 0427 735 423/Email: Mary.McNamara@wesleymission.org.au

The Wesley LifeForce Suicide Prevention Training is an exemplar of an innovative initiative to adapt an existing mainstream suicide prevention program led by highly experienced Aboriginal community consultants using culturally responsive and reciprocal learning processes. In 2014 the Wesley Suicide Prevention Services engaged The Seedling Group to adapt the Wesley LifeForce Community Suicide Prevention Training Program to be culturally responsive for facilitators working with Indigenous peoples and to develop a resource for use by Indigenous community workers. The group consulted with local communities in Halls Creek in The Kimberley, Katherine in the Norther Territory and Thursday Island in the Torres Strait to receive feedback in order to develop a program that would be culturally appropriate for the participants. A key outcome required was the documentation and provision of a program design with content options informed by theory, research and cultural protocols, underpinned by professional practice and documented program logic. The initiative took place over a six months period.

The program has been designed to be adaptable to individual communities rather than ‘one size fits all’. The basis of the program is respectful knowledge sharing rather than facilitator led presentations. Starting in 2015, Wesley LifeForce carried out a series of suicide prevention workshops led by Aboriginal mental health workers. The aim of the workshops is to equip the participants with adequate knowledge about the high incidence of suicide in Australia, especially among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and factors contributing to suicide. More importantly, the training improved participants’ confidence in identifying warning signs of suicide and intervening accordingly.

Wesley LifeForce is currently rolling out a Train the Trainer program: The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Suicide Prevention Training project. This will equip Indigenous community workers to become a suicide prevention resource in their communities and facilitate suicide prevention workshops.

The key aims of the project were to:

  • Develop a culturally responsive training model in development and design, while adapting the existing Suicide Prevention Training program
  • Develop a resource to encourage the inclusion of collective healing and knowledge exchange, through the development of a training model which is both culturally appropriate and responsive to the individual or collective Indigenous community members attending. Discussions are held as yarning circles to enhance community capacity and engagement, to help increase community strength and resilience
  • Develop an evaluation framework to evaluate the efficacy of the program in suicide prevention.

The outcomes of the project:

  • Recommendation, protocols and curriculum for a culturally responsive training package were developed to deliver suicide prevention training to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community workers
  • Feedback was obtained from community members who would receive the training and represent the end user. This enabled cultural diversity to be incorporated into the integrated framework. Indigenous communities all gave their voice to guide the development of the project. Communities participated in the focus groups and also a pilot training program
  • Community members identified the best people to attend the training and focus groups
  • The consultants spent time in the community before and after the training and focus groups, to provide further information and exchange of knowledge as part of a reciprocal learning process
  • Consultations for the adaptation took place in three sites based on the communities’ needs and on the team’s existing connections and relationships with community members on a personal and professional level in Katherine, Northern Territory, Halls Creek, Western Australia and Thursday Island in the Torres Strait
  • Evaluation of the focus groups and the pilot training were conducted at the end of each session. Certificate of participation in focus groups and training were provided to attendees. Follow-up of participants by the team, or by agreed community members, was carried out following each session
  • Based on the consultations and evaluation follow-up, the Seedling Group research consultants identified the key features considered essential for effective community suicide awareness workshops and training. This included the key elements involved in the facilitation, delivery and evaluation


  • Relationships built with key community members before introducing the training into the community
  • A key Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander local training assistant who is a recognised member of the community engaged to recruit community members for the training so that appropriate people are included on invitation lists
  • Local Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander businesses utilised where possible for venue and catering purposes, accommodation and transport within the community
  • Care needs to be taken to ensure culturally appropriate opening and closing protocols are observed
  • The trainer and the local Indigenous training assistant review the presentation before the group training to ensure it is acceptable for that community
  • Group work is encouraged, as it is a cultural way of sharing knowledge and learning. This also allows those less articulate in Standard Australian English or less confident members of the group to be heard and ask questions of peers. Small groups working together offer safety and were requested by focus groups
  • Housekeeping to include how to proceed if the training is distressing participants in any way. It is likely that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants in this training will have been affected first hand by suicide, so the trainer should be trained to handle these situations during facilitation


  • Spend time on introductions – it is critical when facilitating this training in community. This step is paramount to building trust with participants
  • Training should be given in a more informal ‘yarning circle’ or ‘round table’ setting
  • Sharing of knowledge, rather than imparting of knowledge; emphasising reciprocal learning
  • The opportunity for participants to add cultural content as a part of the training should be allowed and encouraged
  • In communities where English is the second, third or even the fourth language, an interpreter (e.g. someone in the community) should be engaged to translate the information
  • Include groups like Police and Community Youth Centres who have a strong relationships with some homeless groups in a number of communities
  • Pre-training evaluations and post-training evaluations carried out to measure effectiveness for different population groups
  • Using the qualitative evaluation process of “most significant change” to see how this training influences changes over time

Evaluation Findings
The key findings from this process provide important insights into the design and delivery of any program and service.

  • The project was planned with the concepts of community capacity building, community engagement and culturally acceptable knowledge sharing protocol as its core features
  • The project was planned to include full and fair participation of and input from the community members. This is considered not only an ethical and moral research practice, but a basic human rights practice
  • The critical importance of developing a resource that is very different from just an adaptation of an existing program. The developed program incorporates existing knowledge from the old program, however it is grounded in collective healing knowledge and a reciprocal learning focus. It is intended to improve the range and quality of suicide prevention knowledge skills and training material and programs available to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
  • The reciprocal learning within the training model enables the training to be effective in any situation
  • A problem with other training packages is the lack of interaction and ability for each community to raise their community needs and direct the knowledge transfer to best suit their needs. The inclusion of a community co-facilitator adds strength to the reciprocal learning for the community, as well as offering a small strategy of “continued or after care” response to knowledge to support the participants and community members following the training. It is also a critical step in building sustainable relationships with service providers like the Wesley Mission and community members. It is also a real example of culturally responsive reciprocal practice
  • Through the pre and post workshop evaluations, there was a strong increase in participants’ knowledge regarding the incidence of suicide in Australia and factors contributing to suicide. The participants also demonstrated an improved ability to identify suicidal behaviours, communicate with a suicidal person and conduct a suicide intervention. This provides evidence for the training’s capacity to improve people’s competence in addressing suicide in their community. Its aim is not only to increase awareness around suicide in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities but also increase participants’ confidence in suicide intervention

The Wesley LifeForce training adapted model strengths and capacity in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and resilience in individuals and families. Specifically, it promotes the communities to have the capacity to initiate, plan, lead and sustain strategies to promote community awareness and to develop and implement community suicide prevention plans. It also provides materials and resources appropriate for the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in diverse community settings. The training program also improves suicide awareness among “gatekeepers” and “natural helpers” in communities affected by self-harm and suicide.

The evaluative assessment is based on several in-depth interviews and email correspondence with the two Indigenous practitioners involved in adapting the training program. Although the community training program specifically for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders community workers was only recently launched in 2015, the program was developed on the basis of informed community perspectives. Many of the people who participated in the consultation to ensure the training is culturally responsive were Elders and families with lived experiences who spoke directly to their needs. This is consistent with recommendations in the Suicide Prevention Australia position (2010) and The Fifth National Plan. There is considerable evidence that confirms that community-led, grass roots suicide prevention practices are more successful in reducing trauma and death than programs designed and implemented by external agencies. Therefore the need for training specific to Indigenous communities is critical (Silburn et al., 2014). This adapted program includes elements that have been identified in both the national and international research in Indigenous suicide and the Strategy as essential for effective practice (Culture is Life 2014).

It is rated as promising evidence of effectiveness and practice. The inclusion of Indigenous community consultants in suicide prevention training and the inclusion of a ‘continuity care’ strategy and partnership increase the ability of Wesley LifeForce suicide prevention service which is rolled out nationally to provide effective culturally responsive practice providing all of the identified elements identified and reported by Kelleigh and Tujagu (2015) are implemented in all Indigenous community suicide prevention training.

To be updated in 2021

Wontulp-Bi-Buya College Suicide Prevention Training Course (QLD)

Wontulp-Bi-Buya College Suicide Prevention Training is a training program delivering the Indigenous Mental Health (Suicide Prevention) Certificate IV. This course works to promote positive responses to suicide and mental health issues in Aboriginal and Torres Strait communities.

Wontulp-Bi-Buya web page

Contact: Course coordinator Karen Guivarra
Phone: 0409 159 164 / (07) 4041 4596
Freecall (QLD only): 1800 065 607

Wontulp Bi-Buya College (WBBC) delivers the Indigenous Mental Health (suicide prevention) Certificate IV (IMC IV). This course has been delivered in six intakes from 2014-2019 and is accredited by the Australian Skills Quality Authority (ASQA).  Importantly, it is approved for the ABSTUDY study assistance scheme for Aboriginal and Torres Strait (hereon Aboriginal) students1. Re-accreditation of the course is occurring during 2019.

Development of the course was undertaken by WBBC’s Course Advisory Committee in partnership with WBBC Trainer and Course Coordinator, Reverend Leslie Baird. Reverend Baird developed the Strategic Plan for Suicide Prevention in Yarrabah (1995/6) and he worked in consultation with Aboriginal leaders to adapt the IMC IV to fulfil the needs of the ASQA1. The IMC IV course works to train Aboriginal people to promote local responses to suicide and mental health issues within their community. Importantly, the course is transferrable from one community to another1.

Enrolled students are from a wide selection of communities which provides them with greater networking opportunities upon graduation. Their average level of formal education is Year 10. Hence, the teaching strategy within the IMC IV encompasses the inclusion of continued high support and modified learning plans1. For example, there is an awareness of the need for Aboriginal learning styles and cultural acceptability2. Furthermore, the IMH IV, has a  strong focus on the development of workforce skills with students learning to recognise and respond to substance misuse and addictions behaviour in those around them. They are also taught where to refer those with  mental issues and to provide counselling and Aboriginal mental health first aid for suicide prevention3.


  1. Stephens A. Training for Life: supporting communities to reduce the risk of suicide. The delivery of Certificate IV in Indigenous Mental Health (Suicide prevention). Cairns James Cook University, 2015.
  2. Stephens A. Training for impact: Building an understanding of community development training and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community development outcomes. Wontulp Bi-Buya College 2012–2014: James Cook University, 2015.
  3. Stephens A, Monro D. Training for life and healing: the systemic empowerment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and women through vocational education and training. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education 2018

Goals of the WBBC Suicide Prevention Training Course are to produce empowered community leaders by:

  • Increasing student awareness of mental health and suicide issues by providing ongoing support to students through their network membership
  • Developing students’ capacities for personal empowerment and positive lifestyle choices to improve their overall mental health and help-seeking behaviours which will be needed for them to support others
  • Achieving the verbal and practical skills needed to work effectively with current health and community service providers

Key objectives are to:

  • Promote local responses to suicide and related issues in communities
  • Facilitate greater communication between service providers and local communities
  • Facilitate access by communities around Australia to appropriate service providers2

In the pilot phase of the IMH IV, Wontulp Bi-Buya College placed 60 students who were mostly female and had an average age of more than 45 years. Compared to national norms for Aboriginal students in VET courses, college outcomes for enrolment and course completion are outstanding. In 2014 and 2015, there was a 78% completion rate for the 60 students who originally enrolled in the IMH IV2. Latest reports indicated that 85% of students graduated3. Six instances of people obtaining full-time employment due to their completion of the IMH IV course have been recorded in the College post-completion records1.

Attempts at internal evaluation of the IMH IV were made at the end of each module. However, these attempts were hampered because  the student response rate was low.

Using action research, a two-year evaluation of the delivery and outcomes of the IMC IV was undertaken by Dr Anne Stephens of James Cook University from 2012–20151-3. This evaluation was designed to measure the delivery of the IMC IV and its outcomes against the key objectives. The principal investigator was initially introduced to students and observed classes. Interviews with students were conducted at different stages of the course. Students were recruited using a snowballing approach with each making the final decision as to whether or not to participate. A semi-structured questionnaire, in combination with a yarning approach, were used for interviews. The backdrop was the buildings or grounds of the College with no members of staff present. Qualitative data was collected to explore the processes that led to the recorded outcomes. The research was grounded in the experiences of students and trainers with data obtained over two years of continuous observation and collection.

Staff noticed changes in students1 and students noted changes in themselves3. Typically, those interviewed described their increased self-confidence and assertiveness along with improved literacy, numeracy and writing skills. Other areas of improvement were public speaking, and cultural knowledge3. One student said that each time he went to a residential teaching block, his/her life improved. He student went on to describe how it had been necessary to disregard some dysfunctional friends, how his/her mind had expanded and he/she now felt able to help others. Another reported that as a result of the course, he/she was better able to respond to difficult emotional states by being able to talk through an issue. Formerly,  this respondent recalled that reactions tended to be violent or shameful1.  Another described how the IMC IV had provided counselling skills and led to fulltime work assisting Aboriginal clients with mental health issues. Students also showed high levels of satisfaction with trainers and training material3.

The evaluators summarized by describing the College’s approach to training Aboriginal people as systemic empowerment. As a result of training, graduates are able to examine critically and holistically the opportunities, constraints, and relationships which compose the networks within a community, providing them with empowerment3. They added that the course, though highly respected by North Queensland regional employers, still needed promotion among this group3 to maximize opportunities for  graduates.

To be updated in 2021

To be updated in 2021

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